C - Environment Setup
In order to start compiling and executing c programs, you need the following two software tools available on your computer, (a) Text Editor and (b) The C Compiler.
C is often called a "Middle Level" programming language. because of its capability to access the system's low level functions. Most high-level languages (e.g. Fortran) provides everything the programmer might want to do already built into the language. A low level language (e.g. assembler) provides nothing other than access to the machines basic instruction set. A middle level language, such as C, it provides you with all the building blocks that you will need to produce the results you want.
a) Text Editor :
A text editor is used for write code and has features that help developers with their tasks, such as auto-indentation or automatic code formatting. Examples of few a editors include Windows Notepad, Notepad++, OS Edit command, Brief, Epsilon, EMACS, and vim or vi.
The files you create with your editor are called the source files and they contain the program source codes. The source files for C programs are typically named with the extension ".c".
b) The C Compiler :
C compiler is itself a program which converts a program written in high level language(such as c) to machine language. i.e. It transforms human readable (programming language) source code into another computer language (binary) code.
Thus it can be considered as a language translator which translates a source code written in higher level language to object code which is a program in machine language.
A compiler reads entire program at a time and then generates the object code if there are no syntax errors in source code.